Classic Philosophical Questions 13e : Revised Edition - Gould, James A.

Classic Philosophical Questions 13e : Revised Edition

James A. Gould

Yayınevi: Pearson Education

Yayın tarihi: 02/2009

ISBN: 9780136006527

Yazar : Robert J. Mulvaney

İngilizce | 592 Sayfa | 152 mm x 229 mm

Tür: Felsefe

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Classic Philosophic Questions has presented decades of students with the most compelling classic and contemporary primary source readings on the most enduring and abiding questions in philosophy.

Classic Philosophic Questions is a longstanding and highly respected anthology of basic readings in philosophy, taken from ancient, modern, and contemporary sources. Issues are treated in a fundamentally open manner with arguments pro and con for the various positions covered. All selections are taken from primary sources, with introductions and study guides to facilitate reading for the beginning student. A unique feature of this book is the list of "think abouts" at the end of most of the readings. These suggest issues raised in the readings that can promote new ways of thinking about themes and concepts.

This text offers a comprehensive, first-hand experience of all the major branches of Philosophy. It covers all the fundamentals in philosophy, as opposed to volumes dealing with specialized topics. It draws from the ancient as well as modern and contemporary sources, rather than focusing on one particular historical period. Each reading contains a biographical sketch of the author, and a group of further readings for the student wishing to pursue the issue in greater depth.

Table of Contents:
PART 1--Plato and the Trial of Socrates
What is Philosophy?
1. Euthyphro: Defining Philosophical Terms
2. The Apology, Phaedo, and Crito: The Trial, Immortality, and Death of Socrates
PART 2 --Philosophy of Religion
Can We Prove That God Exists?
3. St. Anselm: The Ontological Argument
4. St. Thomas Aquinas: The Cosmological Argument
5. William Paley: The Teleological Argument
6. BlaisePascal: It Is Better to Believe in God’s Existence Than to Deny It
7. William James: Free Choice is the Basis of Belief
Does the Idea of a Good God Exclude Evil?
8. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: God Can Allow Some Evil
9. David Hume: A Good God Would Exclude Evil
PART 3 -- Ethics
Are Ethics Relative?
10. Ruth Benedict: Ethics Are Relative
11. W.T. Stace: Ethics Are Not Relative
Are Humans Always Selfish?
12. Humans Are Always Selfish: Glaucon’s Challenge to Socrates
13. James Rachels: Humans Are Not Always Selfish
Which Is Basic in Ethics: Happiness or Obligation?
14. Aristotle: Happiness Is Living Virtuously
15. Jeremy Bentham: Happiness Is Seeking the Greatest Pleasure for the Greatest Number of People.
16. Immanuel Kant: Duty Is Prior to Happiness
17. Friedrich Nietzsche: Happiness is Having Power
18. Jean-Paul Sartre: Existentialist Ethics
19. Rosemarie Tong: Feminist Ethics Are Different
Three Contemporary Moral Problems: Abortion, Homosexuality, Animal Rights.
20. Jane English: Are Most Abortions Moral?
21. James A. Gould: Is Homosexuality Unnatural or Immoral?
22. Peter Singer: Do Animals Have Rights?
PART 4 -- Knowledge
What is Knowledge?
23. Plato: Knowledge is ‘Warranted, True Belief’ What Method is Best for Acquiring Knowledge?
24. Charles Sanders Peirce: Four Approaches to Philosophy
How Do We Acquire Knowledge?
25. René Descartes: Knowledge Is Not Ultimately Sense Knowledge
26. John Locke: Knowledge Is Ultimately Sensed
27. Immanuel Kant: Knowledge Is Both Rational and Empirical
How Is Truth Established?
28. Bertrand Russell: Truth Is Established by Correspondence
29. F. H. Bradley: Truth Is Established by Coherence
30. William James: Truth Is Established on Pragmatic Grounds
Can We Know the Nature of Causal Relations?
31. David Hume: Cause Means Regular Association
32. David Hume: There Are No Possible Grounds for Induction
PART 5 — Metaphysics
Why is there something rather than nothing?
33. Parmenides: Being is Uncaused
34. Lao-Tzu: Non-Being is the Source of Being
Is Reality General or Particular?
35. Plato: Universals Are Real
36. David Hume: Particulars Are Real
Of What Does Reality Consist?
37. René Descartes: Reality Consists of Mind and Matter
38. Paul Churchland: Reality Consists of Matter
39. George Berkeley: Reality Consists of Ideas
40. John Dewey: Reality Consists of Mental and Physical Qualities
Are Humans Free?
41. Holbach: Humans Are Determined
42. Moritz Schlick: Freedom and Determinism are Compatible
43. Robert Kane: Humans are Free
PART 6 —Social and Political Philosophy
What is Liberty?
44. Fyodor Dostoevski: Liberty and Authority
45. John Stuart Mill: Liberty is Independence from the Majority’s Tyranny
46. Martin Luther King Jr.: Liberty and Racial Prejudice
Which Government Is Best?
47. Thomas Hobbes: Monarchy Is Best
48. John Locke: Democracy Is Best
49. Karl Marx: Communism and Nonalienated Labor Is Best
50. Alexis de Tocqueville: Democracy Can Have Serious Problems
51. Karl Popper: Utopias Lead to Violence
PART 7 --Aesthetics
What Constitutes the Experience of Beauty?
52. Plotinus: Beauty, Sensuous and Ideal
What Is the Function of Art?
53. Aristotle: The Nature of Tragedy
54. Henri Bergson: The Nature of Comedy
PART 8 —Philosophy and the Good Life
Two Classic Views of the Good Life
55. Epicurus and the Pleasant Life
56. Epictetus and the Life of Self Control
What Gives Life Meaning?
57. Leo Tolstoy: Faith Provides Life’s Meaning
58. Albert Camus: Each Person Determines His or Her Life’s Meaning
What is the Value of Philosophy?
59. Bertrand Russell: The Value of Philosophy

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